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Marriage , also called matrimony or wedlock , is a socially or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity in-laws and other family through marriage. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity. When defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, social, libidinal , emotional, financial, spiritual , and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender , socially determined rules of incest , prescriptive marriage rules , parental choice and individual desire.

The link between a college education and a lasting marriage

For more on how Protestant respondents were grouped into particular religious traditions, see Appendix B. Between and , the overall size of the U. This decline is larger than the combined margins of sampling error in the twin surveys conducted seven years apart.

Using the margins of error to calculate a probable range of estimates, it appears that the number of Christian adults in the U. In , there were an estimated 41 million mainline Protestant adults in the United States. By contrast, the size of the historically black Protestant tradition which includes the National Baptist Convention, the Church of God in Christ, the African Methodist Episcopal Church, the Progressive Baptist Convention and others has remained relatively stable in recent years, at nearly 16 million adults.

And evangelical Protestants, while declining slightly as a percentage of the U. The new survey indicates that churches in the evangelical Protestant tradition including the Southern Baptist Convention, the Assemblies of God, Churches of Christ, the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod, the Presbyterian Church in America, other evangelical denominations and many nondenominational congregations now have a total of about 62 million adult adherents.

That is an increase of roughly 2 million since , though once the margins of error are taken into account, it is possible that the number of evangelicals may have risen by as many as 5 million or remained essentially unchanged.

Like mainline Protestants, Catholics appear to be declining both as a percentage of the population and in absolute numbers. The new survey indicates there are about 51 million Catholic adults in the U. But taking margins of error into account, the decline in the number of Catholic adults could be as modest as 1 million.

Meanwhile, the number of religiously unaffiliated adults has increased by roughly 19 million since There are now approximately 56 million religiously unaffiliated adults in the U. Indeed, the unaffiliated are now second in size only to evangelical Protestants among major religious groups in the U. As the Millennial generation enters adulthood, its members display much lower levels of religious affiliation, including less connection with Christian churches, than older generations.

And fewer than six-in-ten Millennials identify with any branch of Christianity, compared with seven-in-ten or more among older generations, including Baby Boomers and Gen-Xers. Roughly one-in-five are evangelical Protestants. In addition, people in older generations are increasingly disavowing association with organized religion. About a third of older Millennials adults currently in their late 20s and early 30s now say they have no religion, up nine percentage points among this cohort since , when the same group was between ages 18 and Nearly a quarter of Generation Xers now say they have no particular religion or describe themselves as atheists or agnostics, up four points in seven years.

As the shifting religious profiles of these generational cohorts suggest, switching religion is a common occurrence in the United States. If switching among the three Protestant traditions e. Some switching also has occurred in the other direction: By contrast, Christianity and especially Catholicism has been losing more adherents through religious switching than it has been gaining. Former Christians represent Both the mainline and historically black Protestant traditions have lost more members than they have gained through religious switching, but within Christianity the greatest net losses, by far, have been experienced by Catholics.

Nearly one-third of American adults This means that No other religious group in the survey has such a lopsided ratio of losses to gains. The evangelical Protestant tradition is the only major Christian group in the survey that has gained more members than it has lost through religious switching.

This is the first report on findings from the U. Religious Landscape Study, the centerpiece of which is a nationally representative telephone survey of 35, adults. The first was conducted in , also with a telephone survey of more than 35, Americans. The results of the Religious Landscape Study will be published in a series of reports over the coming year. This first report focuses on the changing religious composition of the U. It also summarizes patterns in religious switching.

In addition, this report includes an appendix that compares the findings of the and Religious Landscape Studies with several other surveys and assesses how recent developments in American religion fit into longer-term trends. Data from a variety of national surveys, including the long-running General Social Survey and Gallup polls, confirm that Protestants have been declining as a share of the U.

But there is less of a consensus about trends in American Catholicism. Some surveys, including the one featured in this report, indicate that the Catholic share of the population is declining, while others suggest it is relatively stable or may have declined and then ticked back up in recent years. Other findings from the Religious Landscape Study will be released later this year.

Many individuals from the Pew Research Center contributed to this report. Alan Cooperman, director of religion research, oversaw the effort and served as the primary editor. Gregory Smith, associate director for religion research, served as the primary researcher and wrote the Overview and Methodology. Smith also wrote the chapter on the changing religious composition of the U. The chapter on religious switching and intermarriage was written by Research Associate Becka Alper.

Research Associate Jessica Martinez and Research Assistant Claire Gecewicz wrote the chapter on the demographic profiles of religious groups, and Research Analyst Elizabeth Sciupac wrote the chapter on the shifting religious identity of demographic groups.

Gecewicz prepared the detailed tables. Bill Webster created the graphics. Green, director of the Ray C. Bliss Institute of Applied Politics at the University of Akron, served as a senior adviser on the Religious Landscape Studies, providing valuable advice on the survey questionnaires, categorization of respondents and drafts of the reports. Additionally, we received helpful comments on portions of the study from David E.

While the analysis was guided by our consultations with the advisers, the Pew Research Center is solely responsible for the interpretation and reporting of the data. The remainder of this report explores in greater depth many of the key findings summarized in this Overview. Chapter 1 offers a detailed look at the religious composition of the United States and how it has changed in recent years.

Chapter 2 examines patterns in religious switching and intermarriage. Chapter 3 provides a demographic profile of the major religious traditions in the United States.

Chapter 4 then flips the lens, looking at the religious profile of Americans in various demographic groups. Historically, and still in many countries, children born outside marriage suffered severe social stigma and discrimination. In England and Wales, such children were known as bastards and whoresons. There are significant differences between world regions in regard to the social and legal position of non-marital births, ranging from being fully accepted and uncontroversial to being severely stigmatized and discriminated.

The European Convention on the Legal Status of Children Born out of Wedlock protects the rights of children born to unmarried parents. While in most Western countries legal inequalities between children born inside and outside marriage have largely been abolished, this is not the case in some parts of the world. The legal status of an unmarried father differs greatly from country to country.

Without voluntary formal recognition of the child by the father, in most cases there is a need of due process of law in order to establish paternity. In some countries however, unmarried cohabitation of a couple for a specific period of time does create a presumption of paternity similar to that of formal marriage. This is the case in Australia.

A special situation arises when a married woman has a child by a man other than her husband. Some countries, such as Israel , refuse to accept a legal challenge of paternity in such a circumstance, in order to avoid the stigmatization of the child see Mamzer , a concept under Jewish law.

In , the European Court of Human Rights ruled in favor of a German man who had fathered twins with a married woman, granting him right of contact with the twins, despite the fact that the mother and her husband had forbidden him to see the children.

The steps that an unmarried father must take in order to obtain rights to his child vary by country. In some countries such as the UK since in England and Wales, in Scotland, and in Northern Ireland it is sufficient for the father to be listed on the birth certificate for him to have parental rights; [] in other countries, such as Ireland, simply being listed on the birth certificate does not offer any rights, additional legal steps must be taken if the mother agrees, the parents can both sign a "statutory declaration", but if the mother does not agree, the father has to apply to court.

Children born outside marriage have become more common, and in some countries, the majority. During the first half of the 20th century, unmarried women in some Western countries were coerced by authorities to give their children up for adoption. This was especially the case in Australia, through the forced adoptions in Australia , with most of these adoptions taking place between the s and the s.

In , Julia Gillard , then Prime Minister of Australia, offered a national apology to those affected by the forced adoptions. Some married couples choose not to have children. Others are unable to have children because of infertility or other factors preventing conception or the bearing of children. In some cultures, marriage imposes an obligation on women to bear children. In northern Ghana , for example, payment of bridewealth signifies a woman's requirement to bear children, and women using birth control face substantial threats of physical abuse and reprisals.

Religions develop in specific geographic and social milieux. The precepts of mainstream religions include, as a rule, unequivocal prescriptions for marriage, establishing both rituals and rules of conduct. Then the Lord God made a woman from the rib he had taken out of the man, and he brought her to the man.

The man said, "This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh; she shall be called 'woman', for she was taken out of man. So they are no longer two, but one. Therefore what God has joined together, let man not separate. Modern Christianity bases its views on marriage upon the teachings of Jesus and the Paul the Apostle.

A couple could exchange consent anywhere, anytime. Decrees on marriage of the Roman Catholic Council of Trent twenty-fourth session of made the validity of marriage dependent on the wedding occurring in the presence of a priest and two witnesses. The Christian Church performed marriages in the narthex of the church prior to the 16th century, when the emphasis was on the marital contract and betrothal.

Subsequently, the ceremony moved inside the sacristy of the church.

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Christians often [ quantify ] marry for religious reasons, ranging from following the biblical injunction for a "man to leave his father and mother and cleave to his wife, and the two shall become one", [Gen. Catholics , Eastern Orthodox , as well as many Anglicans and Methodists , consider marriage termed holy matrimony to be an expression of divine grace , [] termed a sacrament and mystery in the first two Christian traditions.

In Western ritual , the ministers of the sacrament are the spouses themselves, with a bishop , priest , or deacon merely witnessing the union on behalf of the Church and blessing it. In Eastern ritual churches , the bishop or priest functions as the actual minister of the Sacred Mystery; Eastern Orthodox deacons may not perform marriages. Western Christians commonly refer to marriage as a vocation , while Eastern Christians consider it an ordination and a martyrdom , though the theological emphases indicated by the various names are not excluded by the teachings of either tradition.

The sacrament of marriage is indicative of the relationship between Christ and the Church. The Roman Catholic tradition of the 12th and 13th centuries defined marriage as a sacrament ordained by God, [] signifying the mystical marriage of Christ to his Church. The matrimonial covenant, by which a man and a woman establish between themselves a partnership of the whole of life, is by its nature ordered toward the good of the spouses and the procreation and education of offspring; this covenant between baptized persons has been raised by Christ the Lord to the dignity of a sacrament.

For Catholic and Methodist Christians, the mutual love between man and wife becomes an image of the eternal love with which God loves humankind. Sacramental marriage confers a perpetual and exclusive bond between the spouses. By its nature, the institution of marriage and conjugal love is ordered to the procreation and upbringing of offspring.

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Marriage creates rights and duties in the Church between the spouses and towards their children: Civilly remarried persons who civilly divorced a living and lawful spouse are not separated from the Church, but they cannot receive Eucharistic Communion.

Divorce and remarriage , while generally not encouraged, are regarded differently by each Christian denomination. Most Protestant Churches allow persons to marry again after a divorce, while other require an annulment.

The Eastern Orthodox Church allows divorce for a limited number of reasons, and in theory, but usually not in practice, requires that a marriage after divorce be celebrated with a penitential overtone. With respect to marriage between a Christian and a pagan, the early Church "sometimes took a more lenient view, invoking the so-called Pauline privilege of permissible separation 1 Cor.

The Catholic Church adheres to the proscription of Jesus in Matthew , Therefore, what God has joined together, no human being must separate. Specifically, Canon declares that "the essential properties of marriage are unity and indissolubility ; in [C]hristian marriage they acquire a distinctive firmness by reason of the sacrament. However, the Church has the authority to annul a presumed "marriage" by declaring it to have been invalid from the beginning, i.

For Protestant denominations, the purposes of marriage include intimate companionship, rearing children, and mutual support for both spouses to fulfill their life callings. Most Reformed Christians did not regard marriage to the status of a sacrament "because they did not regard matrimony as a necessary means of grace for salvation"; nevertheless it is considered a covenant between spouses before God. Since the 16th century, five competing models of marriage have shaped Protestant marriage and legal tradition:.

Islam also commends marriage, with the age of marriage being whenever the individuals feel ready, financially and emotionally. In Islam, polygyny is allowed while polyandry is not, with the specific limitation that a man can have no more than four legal wives at any one time and an unlimited number of female slaves as concubines , with the requirement that the man is able and willing to partition his time and wealth equally among the respective wives. For a Muslim wedding to take place, the bridegroom and the guardian of the bride wali must both agree on the marriage.

Should the guardian disagree on the marriage, it may not legally take place. If the wali of the girl her father or paternal grandfather, he has the right to force her into marriage even against her proclaimed will, if it is her first marriage. A guardian who is allowed to force the bride into marriage is called wali mujbir. From an Islamic Sharia law perspective, the minimum requirements and responsibilities in a Muslim marriage are that the groom provide living expenses housing, clothing, food, maintenance to the bride, and in return, the bride's main responsibility is raising children to be proper Muslims.

All other rights and responsibilities are to be decided between the husband and wife, and may even be included as stipulations in the marriage contract before the marriage actually takes place, so long as they do not go against the minimum requirements of the marriage. In Sunni Islam , marriage must take place in the presence of at least two reliable witnesses, with the consent of the guardian of the bride and the consent of the groom. Following the marriage, the couple may consummate the marriage.

To create an ' urf marriage, it is sufficient that a man and a woman indicate an intention to marry each other and recite the requisite words in front of a suitable Muslim. The wedding party usually follows but can be held days, or months later, whenever the couple and their families want to; however, there can be no concealment of the marriage as it is regarded as public notification due to the requirement of witnesses.

Following the marriage they may consummate their marriage. In Judaism , marriage is based on the laws of the Torah and is a contractual bond between spouses in which the spouses dedicate to be exclusive to one another. Kabbalistically , marriage is understood to mean that the spouses are merging into a single soul.

This is why a man is considered "incomplete" if he is not married, as his soul is only one part of a larger whole that remains to be unified. Polygyny , or men having multiple wives at once, is one of the most common marital arrangements represented in the Hebrew Bible. Among ancient Hebrews, marriage was a domestic affair and not a religious ceremony; the participation of a priest or rabbi was not required.

Betrothal erusin , which refers to the time that this binding contract is made, is distinct from marriage itself nissu'in , with the time between these events varying substantially. Since a wife was regarded as property, her husband was originally free to divorce her for any reason, at any time.

A divorced couple were permitted to get back together, unless the wife had married someone else after her divorce. Hinduism sees marriage as a sacred duty that entails both religious and social obligations. Old Hindu literature in Sanskrit gives many different types of marriages and their categorization ranging from "Gandharva Vivaha" instant marriage by mutual consent of participants only, without any need for even a single third person as witness to normal present day marriages, to "Rakshasa Vivaha" "demoniac" marriage, performed by abduction of one participant by the other participant, usually, but not always, with the help of other persons.

In India and generally in South Asia, arranged marriages , the spouse's parents or an older family member choose the partner, are still predominant in comparison with so called love marriages until nowadays. The Buddhist view of marriage considers marriage a secular affair and thus not a sacrament. Buddhists are expected to follow the civil laws regarding marriage laid out by their respective governments.

Gautama Buddha, being a kshatriya was required by Shakyan tradition to pass a series of tests to prove himself as a warrior, before he was allowed to marry. In a Sikh marriage, the couple walks around the Guru Granth Sahib holy book four times, and a holy man recites from it in the kirtan style.

The ceremony is known as ' Anand Karaj ' and represents the holy union of two souls united as one. Wiccan marriages are commonly known as handfastings. Although handfastings vary for each Wiccan they often involve honoring Wiccan gods. Sex is considered a pious and sacred activity. Marriage, like other close relationships, exerts considerable influence on health. Social ties provide people with a sense of identity, purpose, belonging, and support.

The health-protective effect of marriage is stronger for men than women. Women's health is more strongly impacted than men's by marital conflict or satisfaction, such that unhappily married women do not enjoy better health relative to their single counterparts. In most societies, the death of one of the partners terminates the marriage, and in monogamous societies this allows the other partner to remarry, though sometimes after a waiting or mourning period.

In some societies, a marriage can be annulled , when an authority declares that a marriage never happened. Jurisdictions often have provisions for void marriages or voidable marriages. A marriage may also be terminated through divorce. Countries that have relatively recently legalized divorce are Italy , Portugal , Brazil , Spain , Argentina , Paraguay , Colombia , Ireland , Chile and Malta As of , the Philippines and the Vatican City are the only jurisdictions which do not allow divorce this is currently under discussion in Philippines.

Laws concerning divorce and the ease with which a divorce can be obtained vary widely around the world. After a divorce or an annulment, the people concerned are free to remarry or marry. A statutory right of two married partners to mutually consent to divorce was enacted in western nations in the midth century. In the United States no-fault divorce was first enacted in California in and the final state to legalize it was New York in The history of marriage is often considered under History of the family or legal history.

Many cultures have legends concerning the origins of marriage. The way in which a marriage is conducted and its rules and ramifications has changed over time, as has the institution itself, depending on the culture or demographic of the time. According to ancient Hebrew tradition, a wife was seen as being property of high value and was, therefore, usually, carefully looked after.

The husband, too, is indirectly implied to have some responsibilities to his wife. The Covenant Code orders "If he take him another; her food, her clothing, and her duty of marriage, shall he not diminish or lessen ". And the term diminish, which means to lessen, shows the man must treat her as if he was not married to another. As a polygynous society, the Israelites did not have any laws that imposed marital fidelity on men. The literary prophets indicate that adultery was a frequent occurrence, despite their strong protests against it, [] [] [] [] and these legal strictnesses.

In ancient Greece , no specific civil ceremony was required for the creation of a heterosexual marriage only mutual agreement and the fact that the couple must regard each other as husband and wife accordingly.

It has been suggested that these ages made sense for the Greeks because men were generally done with military service or financially established by their late 20s, and marrying a teenage girl ensured ample time for her to bear children, as life expectancies were significantly lower.

There were several types of marriages in ancient Roman society. The traditional "conventional" form called conventio in manum required a ceremony with witnesses and was also dissolved with a ceremony. She now was subject to the authority of her husband. In this arrangement, the wife remained a member of her original family; she stayed under the authority of her father, kept her family rights of inheritance with her old family and did not gain any with the new family. Among ancient Germanic tribes, the bride and groom were roughly the same age and generally older than their Roman counterparts, at least according to Tacitus:.

The youths partake late of the pleasures of love, and hence pass the age of puberty unexhausted: Where Aristotle had set the prime of life at 37 years for men and 18 for women, the Visigothic Code of law in the 7th century placed the prime of life at 20 years for both men and women, after which both presumably married.

Tacitus states that ancient Germanic brides were on average about 20 and were roughly the same age as their husbands. In addition, Anglo-Saxon women, like those of other Germanic tribes, are marked as women from the age of 12 and older, based on archaeological finds, implying that the age of marriage coincided with puberty.

From the early Christian era 30 to CE , marriage was thought of as primarily a private matter, with no uniform religious or other ceremony being required. In 12th-century Europe, women took the surname of their husbands and starting in the second half of the 16th century parental consent along with the church's consent was required for marriage.

With few local exceptions, until , Christian marriages in Europe were by mutual consent, declaration of intention to marry and upon the subsequent physical union of the parties. In a wedding took place in Zufia, Navarre , between Diego de Zufia and Mari-Miguel following the custom as it was in the realm since the Middle Ages, but the man denounced the marriage on the grounds that its validity was conditioned to "riding" her " si te cabalgo, lo cual dixo de bascuence The tribunal of the kingdom rejected the husband's claim, validating the wedding, but the husband appealed to the tribunal in Zaragoza , and this institution annulled the marriage.

In the Council of Trent , twenty-fourth session, required that a valid marriage must be performed by a priest before two witnesses. One of the functions of churches from the Middle Ages was to register marriages, which was not obligatory.

There was no state involvement in marriage and personal status, with these issues being adjudicated in ecclesiastical courts. During the Middle Ages marriages were arranged, sometimes as early as birth, and these early pledges to marry were often used to ensure treaties between different royal families, nobles, and heirs of fiefdoms. The church resisted these imposed unions, and increased the number of causes for nullification of these arrangements.

In Medieval Western Europe , later marriage and higher rates of definitive celibacy the so-called "European marriage pattern" helped to constrain patriarchy at its most extreme level. For example, Medieval England saw marriage age as variable depending on economic circumstances, with couples delaying marriage until the early twenties when times were bad and falling to the late teens after the Black Death , when there were labor shortages; [] by appearances, marriage of adolescents was not the norm in England.

The average age of marriage for most of Northwestern Europe from to was around 25 years of age ; [] [] [] as the Church dictated that both parties had to be at least 21 years of age to marry without the consent of their parents, the bride and groom were roughly the same age, with most brides in their early twenties and most grooms two or three years older, [] and a substantial number of women married for the first time in their thirties and forties, particularly in urban areas, [] with the average age at first marriage rising and falling as circumstances dictated.

In better times, more people could afford to marry earlier and thus fertility rose and conversely marriages were delayed or forgone when times were bad, thus restricting family size; [] after the Black Death , the greater availability of profitable jobs allowed more people to marry young and have more children, [] but the stabilization of the population in the 16th century meant fewer job opportunities and thus more people delaying marriages.

The age of marriage was not absolute, however, as child marriages occurred throughout the Middle Ages and later, with just some of them including:. As part of the Protestant Reformation , the role of recording marriages and setting the rules for marriage passed to the state, reflecting Martin Luther 's view that marriage was a "worldly thing". In England, under the Anglican Church, marriage by consent and cohabitation was valid until the passage of Lord Hardwicke's Act in This act instituted certain requirements for marriage, including the performance of a religious ceremony observed by witnesses.

As part of the Counter-Reformation , in the Council of Trent decreed that a Roman Catholic marriage would be recognized only if the marriage ceremony was officiated by a priest with two witnesses. The Council also authorized a Catechism , issued in , which defined marriage as "The conjugal union of man and woman, contracted between two qualified persons, which obliges them to live together throughout life.

In the early modern period , John Calvin and his Protestant colleagues reformulated Christian marriage by enacting the Marriage Ordinance of Geneva, which imposed "The dual requirements of state registration and church consecration to constitute marriage" [] for recognition.

In England and Wales , Lord Hardwicke's Marriage Act required a formal ceremony of marriage, thereby curtailing the practice of Fleet Marriage , an irregular or a clandestine marriage. From the s until the Marriage Act of as many as , clandestine marriages were performed at Fleet Prison alone. The Act did not apply to Jewish marriages or those of Quakers, whose marriages continued to be governed by their own customs. In England and Wales, since , civil marriages have been recognized as a legal alternative to church marriages under the Marriage Act In Germany, civil marriages were recognized in This law permitted a declaration of the marriage before an official clerk of the civil administration, when both spouses affirm their will to marry, to constitute a legally recognized valid and effective marriage, and allowed an optional private clerical marriage ceremony.

In contemporary English common law , a marriage is a voluntary contract by a man and a woman, in which by agreement they choose to become husband and wife. In ancient Chinese society, people of the same surname are supposed to consult with their family trees prior to marriage to reduce the potential risk of unintentional incest. Marrying one's maternal relatives was generally not thought of as incest.

Families sometimes intermarried from one generation to another. Over time, Chinese people became more geographically mobile.

Americas Changing Religious Landscape

Individuals remained members of their biological families. When a couple died, the husband and the wife were buried separately in the respective clan's graveyard. In a maternal marriage a male would become a son-in-law who lived in the wife's home. The New Marriage Law of radically changed Chinese heterosexual marriage traditions, enforcing monogamy , equality of men and women, and choice in marriage; arranged marriages were the most common type of marriage in China until then.

Starting October , it became legal to marry or divorce without authorization from the couple's work units.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Marriage disambiguation. For other uses, see Married disambiguation and Matrimony disambiguation. Murray Michelle Rosaldo David M. Social Bonding and Nurture Kinship. Cicisbeo Concubinage Courtesan Mistress. Breakup Separation Annulment Divorce Widowhood. Based on the Bridal Chorus from R. Polyandry , Polyandry in Tibet , and Polyandry in India.

Same-sex marriage and History of same-sex unions. Cohabitation and Common-law marriage. Prohibited degree of kinship , Cousin marriage , Affinity canon law , and Avunculate marriage. Economics of marriage and Family economics. Bride price and Dower. Marriage and other equivalent or similar unions and status.

Void and Voidable marriages Annulment Marriage fraud. Family and criminal code or criminal law. Child abuse Domestic violence Incest Child-selling. Matrimonial regime and Rights and responsibilities of marriages in the United States.

Repealed between and Overturned on 12 June Marriage open to same-sex couples rings: Legislation or binding domestic court ruling establishing same-sex marriage, but marriage is not yet provided for. Same-sex marriage recognized when performed in certain other jurisdictions, and accorded greater rights than local same-sex unions if any. Civil unions or domestic partnerships. Limited legal recognition partnership certificates, residency rights for foreign spouses, etc.

Country subject to an international court ruling to recognize same-sex marriage. Same-sex unions not legally recognized. Polygamy permitted and practiced.

Legal status unknown or ambiguous. Polygamy generally illegal, but practice not fully criminalised. Christian views on marriage. Religious arguments about same-sex marriage.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Jewish views on marriage. Buddhist view of marriage. Divorce and Divorce law by country. Marriage in ancient Rome and Ancient Greek wedding customs. History of the family and Royal intermarriage. Marriages entered into in these jurisdictions are recognized by law throughout Mexico.

Same-sex marriage is performed and recognized by law in the three Crown dependencies of Guernsey including Alderney , but not Sark , the Isle of Man and Jersey. Same-sex marriage is performed and recognized by law in some, but not all, tribal jurisdictions.

Upon the end of the grace period, same-sex marriage automatically becomes established by law in these countries. Dominica , Grenada and Jamaica , which are also signatories to the convention, have not agreed to the court's blanket jurisdiction. The Human Challenge 13th ed. Retrieved on 5 September Same-sex Marriage and the Constitution , p. History of Human Marriage The Future of Marriage in Western Civilisation.

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For the church, the marriage covenant is gounded in the covenant between God and God's people into which Christians enter in their baptism. Sacrament of Holy Matrimony. Midwest Theological Forum, ; see the printed work to correctly cite the translator s et alia; emphasis added. The Protestant reformers of the sixteenth century were unwilling to call marriage a sacrament because they did not regard matrimony as a necessary means of grace for salvation.

Though not necessary for salvation certainly marriage is a means of grace, thus, sacramental in character. Selderhuis, Herman J, ed. Marriage and Family Life. From sacrament to contract: Retrieved 14 December A Proclamation to the World". Archived from the original on 31 May Archived from the original on 9 November Archived from the original on 24 December Singer, Isidore ; et al.

The whole proceeding was a domestic and family affair, in which no priest or other outsider had any part, except as witness, and there was no religious element in it. Exploring the Mysteries of the Craft from Birth to Summerland p. Marital Quality and Health: Journal of Health and Social Behavior. Archived from the original on 7 June Pedersen, "Marriage" in Kelly Boyd, ed Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing vol 2. Holt and Co, p. Archived from the original on 12 February The Germany and the Agricola of Tacitus.

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